Approximately 20 million tonnes of sand and gravel are dredged from the seabed in England and Wales each year. The area of seabed dredged in 2008 was around 138 km2 representing a tiny overall proportion of the UK Continental Shelf (around 0.01%). The industry provides major economic and social benefits through its overall contribution to the UK economy, sustainability and its role of beach replenishment in flood protection. This monograph considers the direct and indirect impacts that arise from aggregate dredging on the physical environment, marine wildlife, historic deposits and other marine users. It is concluded that, in a regional context, the impacts arising from individual aggregate dredging areas are likely to be not significant as they are minimised through management and mitigation measures by the planning process. Further research is required to assess cumulative impacts and evaluate impacts on ecosystem function in light of these.