This study was carried out to measure the underwater noise generated by offshore wind farms during the construction and operation phases. The purpose of the programme of measurements is to provide information which will aid the estimation and minimisation of the impact of noise during the lifecycle (construction, operation and decommissioning) of wind farms. Measurements were taken during the pile driving phase at North Hoyle, Scroby Sands, Kentish Flats, Barrow and Burbo Bank. The noise created during the pile driving process can cause injury and harmful damage to marine mammals close to the turbines (100metres) and behavioural effects at ranges of the order of 10 kilometres or more. Measurements were taken at the North Hoyle, Scroby Sands, Kentish Flats and Barrow offshore wind farms during the operation phase. In general, the level of noise created by operational wind farms was found to be very low and no evidence was found of noise levels that might have the capacity to cause marine animals to avoid the area.
2007, COWRIE, Measurement and interpretation of underwater noise during construction and operation of offshore windfarms in UK waters