This reports reviews the possibilities to mitigate the noise arising from pile driving for the construction of offshore windfarms. It analyses mitigation measures which have been applied in related projects and assesses their applicability to offshore pile driving. Based on this, suggestions for new mitigation measures are made. The report identifies two methods which are promising to be both applicable and effective in reducing underwater noise arising from offshore pile driving. Both methods are considered to be generally compatible to the working processes at sea. Although further engineering work would be needed, they could be brought into practice within a few months. It is concluded, that noise mitigation measures offer good opportunities to reduce the impacts of underwater noise arising from the construction of offshore windfarms. For the offshore industry, noise mitigation may prove to be beneficial as their application may allow construction works in areas and times when restrictions are needed to protect sensitive species.
2007, COWRIE, Assessment and costs of potential engineering solutions for the mitigation of the impacts of underwater noise arising from the construction of offshore windfarms