The avifauna of shallow sea areas such as the Greater Wash Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) area along the United Kingdom (UK) east coast is typically comprised of a mixture of ‘true’ seabird species (e.g. petrel, shearwater, gannet, cormorants, skua, gull, tern and auk) spending a part of their annual life cycle at sea (e.g. divers and seaduck) and a wide range of species (e.g. waterfowl, wader and passerine) on migration both to and from the UK and Continental Europe. An offshore wind farm could in theory have an effect on a range of species other than just seabirds, as a result of the nature of the different potential impacts. The latter are typically thought to include: · Mortality as a result of collision with wind turbine generator (WTG) blades, towers and ancillary structures during operation; · Disturbance and displacement from preferred areas used for feeding, roosting, resting, moulting or passage, during the construction, operation and decommissioning phases; and · Indirect effects through changes in habitat or prey supply during construction and operation.